jeudi 31 mars 2011

Motesanib and lung cancer - Motesanib et cancer du poumon

Amgen, Takeda drug fails advanced lung-cancer study

            (Reuters, March 30, 2011) - Amgen Inc and Takeda Pharmaceutical Co Ltd said their experimental drug, motesanib, had failed to improve overall survival in a late-stage study of patients with advanced lung cancer.
            The Phase 3 trial of 1,090 patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer did not meet its main goal, the companies said on Wednesday.
            In the study, all patients received two older cancer drugs, paclitaxel or carboplatin, and either motesanib or a placebo. Side effects of a serious nature were more frequently reported in patients taking motesanib, the companies said.
            The trial, known as MONET1, had been temporarily suspended in November 2008 after higher mortality rates were seen. It was cleared to resume in February 2009, but just for patients with the non-squamous cell form of the disease.

(Reporting by Lewis Krauskopf; Editing by Lisa Von Ahn, Dave Zimmerman)

Le motesanib (firmes Amgen & Takeda) déçoit dans une étude sur le cancer du poumon avancé.

            (Reuters, 30 mars 2011) – Les firmes Amgen et Takeda Pharmaceutical ont rapporté que le motesanib, un médicament expérimental, n'avait pas réussi à améliorer la survie globale dans une étude du cancer du poumon au stade avancé.
            L'essai de phase 3 (*) sur 1090 patients ayant un cancer avancé “non à petites cellules” (**), non squameux, n'a pas atteint son objectif principal, selon les deux firmes.
            Dans l'étude, tous les patients avaient reçu deux médicaments anticancer “classiques” (paclitaxel ou carboplatine), ainsi que du motesanib ou un placebo. Des effets secondaires graves ont été observés plus fréquemment chez les patients prenant le motesanib.
            L'étude, connue sous le nom MONET1, avait été temporairement suspendue en novembre 2008 en raison de taux de mortalité plus élevés. Elle avait été autorisée à reprendre en février 2009, mais seulement chez des patients atteints de la forme “non-squameuse” de la maladie (traduction: Marc Lacroix).

(*) Information sur les phases des essais cliniques:

(**) Types de cancers du poumon:

mardi 29 mars 2011

Focus - Evaluation of risk (including tumour formation) factors in the development of stem cell therapy.

Stem cell therapy holds the promise to treat degenerative diseases, cancer and repair of damaged tissues for which there are currently no or limited therapeutic options. The potential of stem cell therapies has long been recognised and the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) has boosted the stem cell field leading to increasing development and scientific knowledge. Despite the clinical potential of stem cell based medicinal products there are also potential and unanticipated risks. These risks deserve a thorough discussion within the perspective of current scientific knowledge and experience. Evaluation of potential risks should be a prerequisite step before clinical use of stem cell based medicinal products. The risk profile of stem cell based medicinal products depends on many risk factors, which include the type of stem cells, their differentiation status and proliferation capacity, the route of administration, the intended location, in vitro culture and/or other manipulation steps, irreversibility of treatment, need/possibility for concurrent tissue regeneration in case of irreversible tissue loss, and long-term survival of engrafted cells. Together these factors determine the risk profile associated with a stem cell based medicinal product. The identified risks (i.e. risks identified in clinical experience) or potential/theoretical risks (i.e. risks observed in animal studies) include tumour formation, unwanted immune responses and the transmission of adventitious agents. Currently, there is no clinical experience with pluripotent stem cells (i.e. embryonal stem cells and iPSC). Based on their characteristics of unlimited self-renewal and high proliferation rate the risks associated with a product containing these cells (e.g. risk on tumour formation) are considered high, if not perceived to be unacceptable. In contrast, the vast majority of small-sized clinical trials conducted with mesenchymal stem /stromal cells (MSC) in regenerative medicine applications has not reported major health concerns, suggesting that MSC therapies could be relatively safe. However, in some clinical trials serious adverse events have been reported, which emphasizes the need for additional knowledge, particularly with regard to biological mechanisms and long term safety.

Source: Evaluation of risk factors in the development of stem cell therapy. Herberts CA, Kwa MS, Hermsen HP. J Transl Med. 2011 Mar 22;9(1):29 (free article). Corresponding author:

samedi 26 mars 2011

Press review (March 26, 2011) – Revue de presse (26 mars 2011)

Approval For Drug That Treats Melanoma
The first drug shown to prolong the lives of people with the skin cancer melanoma won approval from the Food and Drug Administration on Friday.

Novel Treatment for Pancreatic Cancer Under Study
Experimental therapy destroys tumor 'scaffolding,' researchers say

Hormone therapy doubles survival chances in prostate cancer
Men with prostate cancer could halve their risk of dying if they are given hormone therapy as well as radiotherapy, according to academic research.

Five years on breast cancer drug tamoxifen beats two
A new study has a bit of good news for most women who've had breast cancer surgery.
By Frederik Joelving. In Reuters India

Le nouveau regard du cinéma sur le cancer
 "Le bruit des glaçons" de Bertrand Blier l'an dernier, "Ma compagne de nuit" d'Isabelle Brocard aujourd'hui : le cancer trouve sa place au cinéma, où peu à peu il n'intervient plus comme source de mélodrame et d'émotion lourde, mais comme une réalité qu'il faut affronter.

Cancers du sein : trois nouveaux programmes lancés par l'Institut Curie
 La générosité du public permet cette année à l'Institut Curie de mettre en oeuvre trois nouveaux "Pics", c'est-à-dire des Programmes incitatifs et coopératifs, essentiellement centrés sur les cancers du sein.
.Dans Bulletins Electroniques

vendredi 25 mars 2011

Advances in diagnosis, treatment and palliation of pancreatic carcinoma: 1990-2010 - Progrès dans le diagnostic, le traitement et les soins palliatifs du cancer du pancréas: 1990-2010

Advances in diagnosis, treatment and palliation of pancreatic carcinoma: 1990-2010.

Several advances in genetics, diagnosis and palliation of pancreatic cancer (PC) have occurred in the last decades. A multidisciplinary approach to this disease is therefore recommended.
PC is relatively common as it is the fourth leading cause of cancer related mortality. Most patients present with obstructive jaundice, epigastric or back pain, weight loss and anorexia. Despite improvements in diagnostic modalities, the majority of cases are still detected in advanced stages. The only curative treatment for PC remains surgical resection. No more than 20% of patients are candidates for surgery at the time of diagnosis and survival remains quite poor as adjuvant therapies are not very effective. A small percentage of patients with borderline non-resectable PC might benefit from neo-adjuvant chemoradiation therapy enabling them to undergo resection; however, randomized controlled studies are needed to prove the benefits of this strategy. Patients with unresectable PC benefit from palliative interventions such as biliary decompression and celiac plexus block.
Further clinical trials to evaluate new chemo and radiation protocols as well as identification of genetic markers for PC are needed to improve the overall survival of patients affected by PC, as the current overall 5-year survival rate of patients affected by PC is still less than 5%. The aim of this article is to review the most recent high quality literature on this topic.

Source: Advances in diagnosis, treatment and palliation of pancreatic carcinoma: 1990-2010. Sharma C, Eltawil KM, Renfrew PD, Walsh MJ, Molinari M. World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Feb 21;17(7):867-97.

Progrès dans le diagnostic, le traitement et les soins palliatifs du cancer du pancréas: 1990-2010.

Divers progrès en matière de génétique, de diagnostic et de soins palliatifs du cancer du pancréas (CP) ont eu lieu dans les dernières décennies. Une approche multidisciplinaire de cette maladie est donc recommandée.
Le CP est relativement commun, représentant la quatrième cause de mortalité liée au cancer. La plupart des patients présentent un ictère obstructif, des douleurs épigastriques et, en conséquence, une perte de poids et de l'anorexie. Malgré les améliorations apportées dans les modalités de diagnostic, la majorité des cas sont encore détectés à un stade avancé. Le seul traitement curatif pour le CP reste la résection chirurgicale. Au maximum 20% des patients sont candidats à une chirurgie au moment du diagnostic et la survie reste très pauvre au vu du peu d'efficacité des traitements adjuvants. Un petit pourcentage de patients «borderline» non résécables, pourraient bénéficier d'une chimioradiothérapie néo-adjuvante leur permettant de subir une résection, mais des études contrôlées “randomisées” sont nécessaires pour prouver les bienfaits de cette stratégie. Les patients ayant un CP non-résécable peuvent cependant bénéficier d'interventions palliatives telles que la décompression des voies biliaires et le blocage du plexus cœliaque.
Des essais cliniques supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour évaluer de nouveaux protocoles de chimiothérapie et de traitement par radiations. L' identification de marqueurs génétiques du CP pourrait aussi améliorer la survie globale des patients atteints de PC, qui n'est actuellement que de 5% à un horizon de 5 ans.

Source (article en anglais): Advances in diagnosis, treatment and palliation of pancreatic carcinoma: 1990-2010. Sharma C, Eltawil KM, Renfrew PD, Walsh MJ, Molinari M. World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Feb 21;17(7):867-97.

mardi 22 mars 2011

Global Cancer Statistics - Statistiques globales du cancer

Global Cancer Statistics

The global burden of cancer continues to increase largely because of the aging and growth of the world population alongside an increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors, particularly smoking, in economically developing countries.
Based on the GLOBOCAN 2008 estimates, about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths are estimated to have occurred in 2008; of these, 56% of the cases and 64% of the deaths occurred in the economically developing world.

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females, accounting for 23% of the total cancer cases and 14% of the cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the leading cancer site in males, comprising 17% of the total new cancer cases and 23% of the total cancer deaths. Breast cancer is now also the leading cause of cancer death among females in economically developing countries, a shift from the previous decade during which the most common cause of cancer death was cervical cancer. Further, the mortality burden for lung cancer among females in developing countries is as high as the burden for cervical cancer, with each accounting for 11% of the total female cancer deaths.

Although overall cancer incidence rates in the developing world are half those seen in the developed world in both sexes, the overall cancer mortality rates are generally similar. Cancer survival tends to be poorer in developing countries, most likely because of a combination of a late stage at diagnosis and limited access to timely and standard treatment.

A substantial proportion of the worldwide burden of cancer could be prevented through the application of existing cancer control knowledge and by implementing programs for tobacco control, vaccination (for liver and cervical cancers), and early detection and treatment, as well as public health campaigns promoting physical activity and a healthier dietary intake.

Source: Global cancer statistics. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011 Mar-Apr;61(2):69-90.


Statistiques globales du cancer

La charge mondiale du cancer continue d'augmenter, surtout en raison du vieillissement et de la croissance de la population mondiale, mais aussi par l'adoption croissante de comportements qui causent le cancer, notamment le tabagisme, par les pays en voie de développement économique.

Sur la base des estimations “GLOBOCAN” (*), environ 12,7 millions de cas de cancer et 7,6 millions de décès se sont produits dans le monde en 2008; sur ce nombre, 56% des cas et 64% des décès sont survenus dans les pays en voie de développement économique.

Le cancer du sein est le cancer le plus fréquemment diagnostiqué et la principale cause de décès par cancer chez les femmes, ce qui représente 23% de l'ensemble des cas de cancers et 14% des décès par cancer. Le cancer du poumon est le principal cancer chez les hommes, comprenant 17% de l'ensemble des nouveaux cas cancers et 23% du total des décès par cancer. Le cancer du sein est maintenant la principale cause de décès par cancer chez les femmes dans les pays en voie de développement, ce qui marque un changement par rapport à la décennie précédente au cours de laquelle la cause la plus fréquente de décès par cancer du a été le cancer du col utérin. En outre, la charge de mortalité par cancer du poumon chez les femmes des pays en développement est aussi élevée que pour le cancer du col utérin: ils comptent pour 11% du total des décès par cancer chez les femmes.

Bien que le taux global d'incidence du cancer dans le monde en développement soit la moitié de celui observé dans le monde développé, et ce chez les deux sexes, les taux globaux de mortalité par cancer sont généralement similaires. La survie au cancer tend à être plus réduite dans les pays en développement, probablement en raison de la combinaison d'un stade avancé de cancer au moment du diagnostic et de l'accès limité à un traitement rapide et standard.

Une proportion importante de la charge mondiale du cancer pourrait être évitée grâce à l'application des connaissances existantes sur le contrôle du cancer et par la mise en œuvre des programmes de lutte antitabac, de la vaccination (pour les cancers du foie et du col utérin), et de la détection ainsi que du traitement précoce. De plus, des campagnes de santé publique, de promotion de l'activité physique et d'une alimentation plus saine sont souhaitables.

Source: Global cancer statistics. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011 Mar-Apr;61(2):69-90.


vendredi 18 mars 2011

Press review (March 18, 2011) – Revue de presse (18 mars 2011)

The past, present and future of cancer
Researchers gather to discuss the state of their field and the potential for new treatments.
By Anne Trafton, MIT News Office. In MIT News (

Chernobyl Study Says Health Risks Linger
Nearly 25 years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine, children and teenagers who drank contaminated milk or ate affected cheese in the days and weeks after the explosion still suffer from an increased risk of thyroid cancer, according to a study released Thursday by the National Cancer Institute.

Costlier prostate cancer treatments gain popularity
Newer technologies for treating prostate cancer have surged in popularity in the last decade -- and they have come with a hefty price tag, according to a report published this week.

Swimming for long hours in pool can lead to cancer
Excessive swimming or taking long baths in chlorinated water may increasethe riskof developing bladder cancer, a new study has claimed.

Nucléaire: la peur d'un mal invisible
Cancers, hémorragies, problèmes digestifs, infectieux ou immunitaires : l'impact des radiations nucléaires, potentiellement dévastateur, est variable et fonction des doses.

mardi 15 mars 2011

European cancer mortality predictions for the year 2011 - Prévisions de mortalité par cancer en Europe en 2011

European cancer mortality predictions for the year 2011

Using the World Health Organization mortality and population data, Italian and Swiss researchers (*) estimated numbers of deaths in 2011 from all cancers and selected sites (stomach, intestine, pancreas, lung, prostate, breast, uterus, leukemias) for the European Union (EU) and six major countries (France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, UK)

The predicted total number of cancer deaths in the EU in 2011 is 1 281 436 (721 252 men and 560 184 women), as compared with 1 256 001 (703 872 men and 552 129 women), in 2007. The estimated standardized total cancer death rates in 2011 are 142.8/100 000 men and 85.3/100 000 women, compared with 153.8/100 000 men and 90.7/100 000 women. This would correspond to a 7% fall in men and a 6% one in women.
In men, lung cancer accounts for the most deaths (182 080 deaths, 25% of total male cancer deaths) with standardized rate of 37.6/ 100 000, 9% lower than the rate recorded in 2007.
In women, the favorable total cancer trends are mainly driven by falls in breast cancer mortality (the first cause of female cancer deaths, making up for 16% of total cancer mortality with 87 843 deaths and a standardized rate of 15.1/100 000 women), colorectal (73 721 deaths, 9.5/100 000 women) and stomach (21 370 deaths, 2.9/100 000 women) cancers.
These downward trends in rates were reflected in all the examined cancer sites except for pancreatic cancer, stable in men (37 587 deaths, 7.8/100 000 men) and recording a slight rise in women (37 120 deaths, 5.3/100 000 women), and female lung cancer, which rose from 12.6/100 000 women in 2007 to 13.1/100 000 (75 688 deaths) in 2011.

In conclusion, declines in mortality already observed for major sites, including stomach, colorectum, breast, uterus, prostate and leukemias, plus lung cancer in men, have likely continued up to 2011, and a reversal of trends or at least a leveling off is predicted in the few situations where upward trends were observed in the past. Thus, at least in the direction of trends, there appears to be a tendency toward greater homogeneity between the six countries considered and likely also among other EU countries. Lung cancer in women is steadily increasing (except for the UK where rates were already high a decade ago) and has become the first cause of cancer death in Polish women, in addition to women from the UK. More encouraging trends were foreseen for pancreatic cancer, which showed worrying trends in the past, as our model indicated that the increasing trends in women have likely leveled off in recent years.

(*): Malvezzi M, Arfé A, Bertuccio P, Levi F, La Vecchia C, Negri E. European cancer mortality predictions for the year 2011. Annals of Oncology (2011)

Prévisions de mortalité par cancer en Europe en 2011

Sur base de données démographiques et de mortalité de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS), des chercheurs italiens et suisses (*) ont estimé, pour 2011, le nombre de décès par cancer (tous cancers et, en particulier, ceux de l'estomac, intestin, pancréas, poumon, prostate, sein, utérus, leucémies) dans l'Union Européenne (UE) et dans six grands pays de celle-ci (France, Allemagne, Italie, Pologne, Espagne, Royaume-Uni).

Le nombre total prévu de décès par cancer dans l'UE en 2011 est de 1281436 (721252 hommes et 560184 femmes), comparativement à 1256001 (703872 hommes et 552129 femmes) en 2007. Les taux de décès par cancer normalisés sont, pour 2011, de 142.8/100000 hommes et 85.3/100000 femmes, comparativement à 153.8/100000 hommes et 90.7/100000 femmes en 2007. Cela correspondrait à une chute de 7% chez les hommes et 6% chez les femmes.
Chez les hommes, le cancer du poumon est la cause de la plupart des décès (182 080 décès, 25% du total des décès par cancer des hommes) avec un taux standardisé de 37,6/100000, 9% inférieur au taux enregistré en 2007.
Chez les femmes, les tendances favorables sont principalement influencées par les chutes de la mortalité par cancer du sein (la première cause de décès par cancer des femmes, -16% de la mortalité totale par cancer- avec 87843 décès et un taux standardisé de 15.1/100000 femmes), par cancer colorectal (73721 décès, 9.5/100000 femmes) et par cancer de l'estomac (21370 décès, 2.9/100000 femmes).
Ces tendances à la baisse des taux de mortalité se manifestent pour tous les types de cancer étudiés, sauf pour le cancer du pancréas, stable chez les hommes (37587 décès, 7.8/100000 hommes) et légèrement en hausse chez les femmes (37120 décès, 5.3/100000 femmes), et pour le cancer du poumon chez la femme, qui est passé de 12.6/100000 femmes en 2007 à 13.1/100000 (75688 décès) en 2011.

En conclusion, la baisse de la mortalité déjà observée auparavant a probablement continué dans l'UE jusqu'en 2011. Il semble aussi y avoir une tendance vers une plus grande homogénéité entre les six pays de l'UE considérés et probablement aussi dans les autres pays de l'UE. Particularité: le cancer du poumon chez les femmes est en augmentation constante (sauf pour le Royaume-Uni où les taux étaient déjà élevés il y a dix ans) et est devenu la première cause de décès par cancer chez les femmes polonaises, en plus des femmes du Royaume-Uni. Les tendances les plus encourageantes concernent le cancer du pancréas, qui a montré des tendances haussières inquiétantes dans le passé, et qui s'est probablement stabilisé ces dernières années.

(*): Malvezzi M, Arfé A, Bertuccio P, Levi F, La Vecchia C, Negri E. European cancer mortality predictions for the year 2011. Annals of Oncology (2011)

samedi 12 mars 2011

Recent open-access review papers on cancer

Recent open-access review papers on cancer

Initial impact of the sequencing of the human genome.
Lander ES.
Nature. 2011 Feb 10;470(7333):187-97.

Fuhrer G, Lazarus AA.
Dis Mon. 2011 Jan;57(1):40-54.

p53 and its mutants in tumor cell migration and invasion.
Muller PA, Vousden KH, Norman JC.
J Cell Biol. 2011 Jan 24;192(2):209-18.

The WNKs: atypical protein kinases with pleiotropic actions.
McCormick JA, Ellison DH.
Physiol Rev. 2011 Jan;91(1):177-219.

Adult testicular granulosa cell tumor: a review of the literature for clinicopathologic predictors of malignancy.
Hanson JA, Ambaye AB.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2011 Jan;135(1):143-6.

Revolution in lung cancer: new challenges for the surgical pathologist.
Cagle PT, Allen TC, Dacic S, Beasley MB, Borczuk AC, Chirieac LR, Laucirica R, Ro JY, Kerr KM.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2011 Jan;135(1):110-6.

Immunohistochemical diagnosis of renal neoplasms.
Truong LD, Shen SS.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2011 Jan;135(1):92-109.

Molecular testing of solid tumors.
Igbokwe A, Lopez-Terrada DH.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2011 Jan;135(1):67-82.

Estrogen receptor β.
Younes M, Honma N.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2011 Jan;135(1):63-6.

HER2: biology, detection, and clinical implications.
Gutierrez C, Schiff R.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2011 Jan;135(1):55-62.

vendredi 11 mars 2011

Tiny Gems Take Big Step in Battling Cancer - Des nanodiamants pour combattre le cancer

Tiny Gems Take Big Step in Battling Cancer

Nanodiamond-drug combo significantly improves treatment of chemotherapy-resistant cancers

            Chemotherapy drug resistance contributes to treatment failure in more than 90 percent of metastatic cancers. Overcoming this hurdle would significantly improve cancer survival rates.

            In a paper published in “Science Translational Medicine”, Dean Ho, an associate professor of biomedical engineering and mechanical engineering at Northwestern University, and a multidisciplinary team of scientists, engineers and clinicians (*) report that a normally lethal amount of a chemotherapy drug when bound to nanodiamonds significantly reduced the size of tumors in mice. Survival rates also increased and no toxic effects on tissues and organs were observed.

            Nanodiamonds are carbon-based materials approximately 2 to 8 nanometers in diameter. Each nanodiamond’s surface possesses functional groups that allow a wide spectrum of compounds to be attached to it, including chemotherapy agents.

            According to Ho, “these results show the nanodiamond’s enormous translational potential towards significantly improving the efficacy of drug-resistant cancer treatment and simultaneously improving safety”


Des nanodiamants pour combattre le cancer

Une combinaison nano-diamant/composé chimio-thérapeutique améliore significativement le traitement des cancers résistants à la chimiothérapie

            En chimiothérapie, la résistance aux médicaments contribue à l'échec du traitement dans plus de 90 pour cent des cancers métastatiques. Surmonter cet obstacle permettrait d'améliorer sensiblement les taux de survie au cancer.

            Dans un article publié dans la revue "Science Translational Medicine", Dean Ho, professeur de génie biomédical et de génie mécanique à l'Université Northwestern (USA), accompagné d’une équipe multidisciplinaire de scientifiques, d'ingénieurs et de cliniciens (*), annonce qu’un taux normalement mortel d'un médicament chimio-thérapeutique peut réduire considérablement la taille des tumeurs chez la souris lorsque ce médicament est lié à des nano-diamants. Les taux de survie sont augmentés et aucun effet toxique sur les tissus et les organes n’est observé.

            Les nano-diamants sont des matériaux à base de carbone d'environ 2 à 8 nanomètres de diamètre. Chaque surface de nano-diamant possède des groupes fonctionnels qui permettent son association à un large éventail de composés, y compris les agents chimio-thérapeutiques.

            Selon Dean Ho, ces résultats montrent pour la première fois l'énorme potentiel des nano-diamants pour améliorer de manière importante l'efficacité des traitements des cancers résistants à la chimiothérapie tout en les rendant plus sûrs.

Source (en anglais):

mercredi 9 mars 2011

More about me (Marc Lacroix)

More about Marc Lacroix in the following books (LLC Books):
Cancer Researchers: Douglas Scherr, Marc Lacroix, Allen C Eaves, Antonio Brú, Brian Macmahon, Angelika Amon, Stuart A. Aaronson, David Kerr

Belgian Academics: Jules Bordet, Ilya Prigogine, Franz Cumont, Jacques Drèze, Chaïm Perelman, Paul Beliën, Marc Lacroix, Georges Lemaître

University of Liège Alumni: Pierre Harmel, Jean Rey, Jacques Drèze, Marc Lacroix, Jan Kowalewski, Robert Vinçotte, Georges Poulet


mardi 8 mars 2011

Breast cancer: my three previously published books

Breast cancer: my three previously published books

MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer
(Nova Publishers,, 2010)

Book Description:
MicroRNAs, or miRNAs, are a recently discovered class of small regulatory RNAs that influence the stability and translational efficiency of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Alterations in miRNA expression are associated with an increasing number of biological processes, including breast cancer. The study of miRNAs is a rapidly developing field that could considerably change our vision of breast cancer biology. This book offers an insight into our current knowledge of human miRNAs, with a specific interest for breast cancer.

Table of Contents:
Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Detection and Measurement of miRNAs

Chapter 3. miRNA-Related Bioinformatics Tools

Chapter 4. miRNAs of Importance in Breast Cancer

Chapter 5. Clinical Potential of miRNAs in Breast Cancer

Chapter 6. Human miRNAs: Genes, Names, Loci, Sequences, Clusters


Softcover: ISBN: 978-1-61668-438-9
Ebook: ISBN: 978-1-61668-498-3

Molecular Therapy of Breast Cancer: Classicism Meets Modernity
(Nova Publishers,, 2009)

Book Description:
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer and a second leading cause of cancer death in women after lung cancer. Despite their proven efficacy, classical therapies are, however, unable to cure metastatic breast cancer and are often associated with significant toxicity and side-effects, due to a wide spectrum of action. During the last years, our increasing knowledge of the molecular pathways underlying cancer development has led to the introduction of new drugs, of which most are directed towards very specific targets. Rather than to be used as single agents, these “modern” compounds could ultimately be combined with classical molecules.
Here are described nearly 150 drugs that are currently used in routine therapy or are in clinical trials in breast cancer patients. From the classical tamoxifen, fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, epirubin, docetaxel, paclitaxel…, to the more recently introduced ixabepilone, lapatinib, vorinostat, everolimus, bevacizumab…, they also include capecitabine, gemcitabine, trastuzumab, bevacizumab, fulvestrant, aromatase inhibitors, cancer vaccines, inhibitors of tumor-induced osteolysis, insulin-like growth factor-I receptor inhibitors, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 inhibitors, and many others.
This book offers an insight into current developments of breast cancer therapy, when classicism meets modernity.

Table of Contents:
Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and down-regulators (SERDs)

Chapter 3. Aromatase inhibitors

Chapter 4. Agents inducing ovarian suppression

Chapter 5. Antimetabolites

Chapter 6. Alkylating agents

Chapter 7. Anthracyclines

Chapter 8. Microtubule-binding agents

Chapter 9. Topoisomerase inhibitors

Chapter 10. HER family inhibitors

Chapter 11. Angiogenesis inhibitors

Chapter 12. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor inhibitors

Chapter 13. RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway inhibitors

Chapter 14. Ubiquitin-proteasome system inhibitors

Chapter 15. Histone deacetylases inhibitors

Chapter 16. Mitotic inhibitors

Chapter 17. Inhibitors of heat-shock proteins 90 and 27

Chapter 18. PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitors

Chapter 19. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors

Chapter 20. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 inhibitors

Chapter 21. Tumor-induced osteolysis inhibitors

Chapter 22. Vaccines and immunomodulators

Chapter 23. Varia


Hardcover: ISBN: 978-1-60741-593-0
Ebook: ISBN: 978-1-60876-726-7

Tumor Suppressor Genes in Breast Cancer
(Nova Publishers, 2008)

Book Description:
Breast cancer is characterized by the accumulation of genetic alterations, including point mutations and loss of entire DNA regions (“loss of heterozygosity” or LOH). Among genes that are affected by such events, the “tumor suppressor genes” (TSGs) have a peculiar interest since they often occupy pivotal positions in regulatory networks that control the cell cycle and/or encompass various signal transduction cascades. While a number of genes have been suggested as candidate TSGs in breast cancer, only a few of them have been confirmed in this status. They include TP53, BRCA1, BRCA2 and are mainly involved in the control of DNA repair, cell proliferation, apoptosis and signaling. Some TSGs are linked to familial (hereditary) forms of breast cancer. The exact definition of what is a TSG is still debated. Recently, genes not affected by mutation or even LOH, but occasionally methylated have been considered as TSGs.

Table of Contents:

1. Introduction

2. Inactivating Events: LOH, Point Mutations, Methylation

3. TP53: A Major TSG in (Breast) Cancer

4. BRCA1 and BRCA2, Major TSGs in Familial Breast Cancer

5. Detailed Information on Candidate TSGs

6. Conclusions




Softcover: ISBN: 978-1-60456-326-9