lundi 29 juillet 2013

Anticancer molecules (109) – Molécules anticancéreuses (109) – OMACETAXINE MEPESUCCINATE


Name: Omacetaxine mepesuccinate
Commercial name: Synribo
Pharmacological class: alkaloids
Therapeutic class: antineoplastic
Action: omacetaxine mepesuccinate is a semisynthetic formulation of the cytotoxic plant alkaloid homoharringtonine isolated from the evergreen tree Cephalotaxus with potential antineoplastic activity. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate binds to the 80S ribosome in eukaryotic cells and inhibits protein synthesis by interfering with chain elongation. This agent also induces differentiation and apoptosis in some cancer cell types.

In 2012, omacetaxine mepesuccinate is approved:

for the treatment of adult patients with chronic- or accelerated-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with resistance and/or intolerance to two or more tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).


Nom: Omacetaxine mepesuccinate
Nom commercial: Synribo
Classe pharmacologique: alkaloïdes
Classe thérapeutique: antinéoplasiques
Action: l’omacétaxine mepesuccinate est une formulation semi-synthétique de l'alcaloïde végétal cytotoxique homoharringtonine ayant une activité antinéoplasique potentielle. L’omacétaxine mepesuccinate se lie aux ribosomes 80S dans les cellules eucaryotes et inhibe la synthèse protéique en interférant avec allongement de la chaîne protéique. Cet agent provoque également la différenciation et l'apoptose dans certains types de cellules cancéreuses.
En 2012, l’omacétaxine mepesuccinate est approuvée:

pour le traitement des patients adultes atteints ou en phase accélérée de leucémie myéloïde chronique (LMC) et présentant une résistance et / ou une intolérance à deux ou plusieurs inhibiteurs de tyrosine kinase.

vendredi 26 juillet 2013

Press Review (July 27, 2013) – Revue de presse (27 juillet 2013)

Black-White Divide Persists in Breast Cancer
Breast cancer survival is, over all, three years shorter for black women compared with white women, mostly because their cancer is often more advanced when they first seek medical care, new research shows.
By Tara Parker-Pope. In New York Times (blog)

Smart Knife Sniffs Out Cancer Cells.
When surgeons can't determine the edges of a tumor, it's a problem. Cut too much, and they risk hurting the patient. Cut too little, and they may leave stray cancer cells behind. Now, researchers have developed a surgical knife that can sniff the smoke made as it cuts tissue, almost instantly detecting whether cells are cancerous or healthy.
By Jocelyn Kaiser. In Science AAAS                

The impact of p53 in predicting clinical outcome of breast cancer patients with visceral metastasis
In the study, we analyzed role of p53 in predicting outcome in visceral metastasis breast cancer (VMBC) patients. 97 consecutive VMBC patients were studied. P53 positivity rate was 29.9%. In the p53-negative group, median disease free survival (DFS), and time from primary breast cancer diagnosis to death (OS1), time from metastases to death (OS2) were 25, 42.5, and 13.5 months, respectively. In the p53-positive group, they were 10, 22, and 8 months, respectively. Statistically significant differences in DFS and OS1 were detected between the p53-negative and p53-positive subtypes. However, p53 appears to have no influence on OS2. In Cox regression analysis, p53 expression and TNM stage were predictive factors of DFS. In the multivariate analysis, p53 expression and the duration of DFS correlated with OS1, but not for OS2. Taken together, our data indicate p53 showing predicting role in OS1 for VMBC, but not for OS2.
By P. Yang,                                                C. W. Du,          M. Kwan,        S. X. Liang     & G. J. Zhang. In Nature                                                                           

Nano Scientists Reach Holy Grail in Label-Free Cancer Marker Detection: Single Molecules
Just months after setting a record for detecting the smallest single virus in solution, researchers at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University (NYU-Poly) have announced a new breakthrough: They used a nano-enhanced version of their patented microcavity biosensor to detect a single cancer marker protein, which is one-sixth the size of the smallest virus, and even smaller molecules below the mass of all known markers.
In Science Daily (press release)                       

Protein Linked to Cancer Growth May Lead to Cure
Researchers believe the protein could help improve immunotherapy treatments.
By Allie Bidwell. In U.S. News & World Report

Cancer : une stratégie pour affamer les tumeurs
Les cellules tumorales, qui se divisent rapidement, ont de gros besoins en nutriments et peinent à les trouver. Une équipe britannique vient de découvrir comment elles s'adaptent à ce stress nutritionnel permanent. Ce mécanisme, bâti autour de la protéine EEF2K, pourrait devenir la cible de traitements qui feraient mourir de faim les cellules cancéreuses.
Par Agnès Roux. Dans Futura Sciences

Des cancers du poumon liés à la pollution atmosphérique
Le cancer du fumeur pourrait aussi être lié à la pollution atmosphérique. Bien que le tabac reste le principal facteur de risque de cancer du poumon, une vaste étude vient de montrer que les microparticules retrouvées dans l’air ambiant étaient fortement associées au développement de tumeurs pulmonaires.
Par Janlou Chaput. Dans Futura Sciences

jeudi 25 juillet 2013



Tumor types are classified according to the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O), 3rd Edition, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2000. The ICD-O-3 is a dual classification and coding system for both morphology and topography of a neoplasm.
The MORPHOLOGY code (Mxxxx/x) indicates the specific histologic term.
The TOPOGRAPHY code (C00-C80) is occasionally mentioned here.

Abbreviation: NOS, not otherwise specified


Les types de tumeurs sont classés en fonction de la « Classification Internationale des Maladies pour l'Oncologie (CIM-O), 3e édition, Organisation mondiale de la Santé, Genève, 2000. La CIM-O-3 est un système de classification et de codage pour la morphologie et la topographie d'une tumeur.
Le code de MORPHOLOGIE (Mxxxx/x) indique le terme spécifique histologique.
Le code de TOPOGRAPHIE (C00-C80) est occasionnellement mentionné ici.

Abréviation: SAI, sans autre indication

M880 Tumeurs des tissus mous et sarcomes SAI


Soft tissue tumor, benign

Tumeur bénigne des tissus mous

Sarcoma, NOS

Sarcome, SAI

Spindle cell sarcoma

Sarcome à cellules fusiformes

Giant cell sarcoma (except of bone M-9250/3)

Sarcome à cellules géantes (sauf de l'os M9250/3)

Small cell sarcoma

Sarcome à petites cellules

Epithelioid sarcoma

Sarcome à cellules épithélioïdes

Undifferentiated sarcoma

Sarcome indifférencié

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor

Tumeur desmoplastique à petites cellules rondes

M881-M883 Néoplasmes fibromateux


Fibroma, NOS

Fibrome SAI

Fibrosarcoma, NOS

Fibrosarcome SAI



Periosteal fibrosarcoma
C40._, C41._
Fibrosarcome périosté

Fascial fibrosarcoma

Fibrosarcome des fascias

Infantile fibrosarcoma

Fibrosarcome infantile

Solitary fibrous tumor

Tumeur fibreuse solitaire

Solitary fibrous tumor, malignant

Tumeur fibreuse solitaire, maligne


Malignant fibrous histiocytoma

Histocytome fibreux malin

Dermatofibrosarcoma, NOS
Dermatofibrosarcome, SAI

Pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

Dermatofibrosarcome pigmenté

M884 Néoplasmes myxomateux




vendredi 19 juillet 2013

Press Review (July 20, 2013) – Revue de presse (20 juillet 2013)

New surgical knife can instantly detect cancer
A knife can help surgeons make sure they removed all the cancerous tissue, doctors say.
By Maria Cheng. In USA Today

Big Government Opens Big Database For Cancer ResearchSt.
For those of us without degrees in molecular biology, the idea of “personalized medicine” – or PM – can often seem like a vague and distant concept. In this case, the Wikipedia definition of PM is pretty good:
“Personalized medicine or PM is a medical model that proposes the customization of healthcare – with medical decisions, practices, and/or products being tailored to the individual patient. The use of genetic information has played a major role in certain aspects of personalized medicine, and the term was even first coined in the context of genetics (though it has since broadened to encompass all sorts of personalization measures). To distinguish from the sense in which medicine has always been inherently “personal” to each patient, PM commonly denotes the use of some kind of technology or discovery enabling a level of personalization not previously feasible or practical.”
By Dan Munro. In Forbes                                  

Colorectal Cancer Survivors May Face Risk Of Second Cancer
Researchers from the University of Washington and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center found that colorectal cancer survivors have a 15 percent increased risk of a second cancer.
By Amanda Chan. In Huffington Post               

Finding Cancer Cells in the Blood
Technologies that can pull tumor cells from patients’ blood are giving researchers an unprecedented look at cancer.
By Susan Young. In MIT Technology Review   

Deaths Force End to Celgene Trial to Expand Top Cancer Drug (1)
Celgene Corp. (CELG:US) stopped a trial of Revlimid (lenalidomide), its biggest-selling drug, after more people died using the product than those who were given a competing therapy.
By Drew Armstrong. In BusinessWeek

Cancer : un scalpel "intelligent" qui détecte les tissus atteints
Au cours des premiers tests effectués, ce "e-scalpel" a détecté avec un taux de réussite de 100% les échantillons provenant de 91 patients.

Cancers en France : davantage de cas mais une mortalité en baisse
Le nombre de cas de cancers en France augmente depuis 1980. Mais la mortalité, elle, recule. Malgré tous les progrès, 2012 est restée très meurtrière, puisque 148.000 hommes et femmes sont décédés des suites de leur tumeur
Dans Futura Sciences

vendredi 12 juillet 2013

Press Review (July 13, 2013) – Revue de presse (13 juillet 2013)

Study finds inverse link between cancer, Alzheimer's
In a small bit of good news for people with terrible diagnoses, having cancer appears to protect against getting Alzheimer's disease -- and vice versa.
By Karen Weintraub. In USA Today

Protein Targeted for Cancer Drug Development Is Essential for Normal Heart Function
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have discovered that a protein used by cancer cells to evade death also plays a vital role in heart health. This dual role complicates efforts to develop cancer drugs that target the protein, but may lead to new therapies for heart muscle damage. The research appeared in the June 15 edition of the scientific journal Genes & Development.
In Science Daily (press release)                       

Sequestration Cuts To Research 'Like A Slowly Growing Cancer'
Research leaders at some of the top American universities have held an annual gathering in Washington the last four years to discuss science, technology, and how federal policies have hampered or fostered both.
By Sam Stein. In Huffington Post                      

Location of Body Fat Can Elevate Heart Disease, Cancer Risk
Individuals with excessive abdominal fat have a greater risk of heart disease and cancer than individuals with a similar body mass index (BMI) who carry their fat in other areas of the body, according to a study published online today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
In Science Daily (press release)                       

Prostate Cancer Treatment, Enzalutamide, Offers New Hope To Men, Study Reveals
A hi-tech prostate cancer drug that offers hope to men who have run out of treatment options became available in the UK on Thursday. Enzalutamide is licensed for patients with advanced prostate cancer who are no longer responding to hormone treatments or chemotherapy. Data from a major trial showed that the new pill, costing around £2,500 a month, can extend the lives of patients no longer being treated by almost five months.
In Huffington Post UK

Cancer du sein : l ' Avastin déconseillé
Le Centre Fédéral d’Expertise des Soins de Santé (KCE) recommande désormais d’arrêter l’utilisation du médicament Avastin utilisé dans le traitement du cancer du sein métastatique. Bien loin des résultats escomptés, ce médicament provoquerait des effets indésirables importants.
Dans Le Vif

Japon : le directeur de la centrale de Fukushima succombe à un cancer
Masao Yoshida, l'homme qui a mené les opérations d'urgence visant à stabiliser la centrale nucléaire de Fukushima au Japon, est mort mardi d'un cancer de l'oesophage. Il avait 58 ans
Dans Radio-Canada

jeudi 11 juillet 2013

Anticancer molecules (108) – Molécules anticancéreuses (108) - ENZALUTAMIDE


Name: Enzalutamide
Commercial name: Xtandi
Pharmacological class: androgen receptor inhibitor
Therapeutic class: antineoplastic
Action: enzalutamide is an orally bioavailable, organic, non-steroidal small molecule targeting the androgen receptor (AR) with potential antineoplastic activity. Through a mechanism that is reported to be different from other approved AR antagonists, enzalutamide inhibits the activity of prostate cancer cell ARs, which may result in a reduction in prostate cancer cell proliferation.

In 2012, enzalutamide is approved:

for treatment of prostate cancer that has metastasized. It is used in patients who have already been treated with docetaxel and whose disease has not responded to treatments that lower testosterone levels.


Nom: Enzalutamide
Nom commercial: Xtandi
Classe pharmacologique: inhibitor du récepteur d’androgènes
Classe thérapeutique: antinéoplasiques
Action: l’enzalutamide est une petite molécule organique, non-stéroide, biodisponible oralement, ciblant le récepteur des androgènes (AR) avec une activité antinéoplasique potentielle. Grâce à un mécanisme qui apparaît différent de celui des autres antagonistes de l’AR approuvés, l’enzalutamide inhibe l'activité des ARs de cellules cancéreuses de la prostate, ce qui peut entraîner une réduction de la prolifération de ces cellules.
En 2012, l’enzalutamide est approuvé:

pour le traitement du cancer de la prostate métastatique, chez les patients qui ont déjà été traités par le docetaxel  et dont la maladie ne répond pas à la diminution du taux de testosterone.

vendredi 5 juillet 2013

Press Review (July 6, 2013) – Revue de presse (6 juillet 2013)

New marker substance for cancer cells
Scientists from ETH Zurich have developed a new substance that enables certain tumour types to be rendered visible in high resolution using positron emission tomography. The so-called tracer has successfully been tested in mice. Now the researchers are planning clinical trials in humans.
In Medical Xpress

MicroRNA Drives Both Cancer Onset and Metastasis
A mere 25 years ago, noncoding RNAs were considered nothing more than "background noise" in the overall genomic landscape. Now, two new studies reveal that one of these tiny noncoding molecules -- microRNA-22 -- plays an outsized role in two types of cancer.
In Science Daily (press release)                       

Cancer-linked FAM190A gene found to regulate cell division
Johns Hopkins cancer scientists have discovered that a little-described gene known as FAM190A plays a subtle but critical role in regulating the normal cell division process known as mitosis, and the scientists' research suggests that mutations in the gene may contribute to commonly found chromosomal instability in cancer.
In EurekAlert (press release)                            

Gene That Controls Aggressiveness in Breast Cancer Cells Identified
In a discovery that sheds new light on the aggressiveness of certain breast cancers, Whitehead Institute researchers have identified a transcription factor, known as ZEB1, that is capable of converting non-aggressive basal-type cancer cells into highly malignant, tumor-forming cancer stem cells (CSCs). Intriguingly, luminal breast cancer cells, which are associated with a much better clinical prognosis, carry this gene in a state in which it seems to be permanently shut down.
In Science Daily (press release)                       

Immune-Boosting Colorectal Cancer Drug Shows Promise
New data on an emerging treatment that aims to fight colorectal cancer by stimulating the immune system have been presented at the ESMO 15th World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer.
In Science Daily (press release)

Cancer : la radiothérapie entre au bloc
Radiophysicienne à l'hôpital Saint-Louis, à Paris, Ramona Itti pousse la console de radiothérapie mobile jusqu'à l'ascenseur. Direction le deuxième étage. Il est près de midi, ce jour de mai. La météo en berne n'affecte guère le moral des troupes : dans la salle aveugle du bloc chirurgical, les murs ont été blindés par vingt centimètres de béton ; les portes, par une fine couche de plomb. Une sécurité imposée par la réglementation française, et dûment contrôlée par l'Autorité de sûreté nucléaire (ASN).
Par Florence Rosier. Dans Le Monde

Cancer professionnel : la difficile question de la reconnaissance
D’après des chiffres parus en 2003, le travail aurait été responsable de 11.000 à 23.000 cancers en France. Tous ne sont cependant pas reconnus comme tel. La question de la causalité reste souvent délicate à déterminer. Mais pourquoi ?
Par Janlou Chaput. Dans Futura Sciences