To synthesise the literature on indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin cancer.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
PubMed (1966 to present), Embase (1974 to present), and Web of Science (1898 to present).
All articles that reported an original effect statistic for indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin cancer were included. Articles that presented no data, such as review articles and editorials, were excluded, as were articles in languages other than English.
Two investigators independently extracted data. Random effects meta-analysis was used to summarise the relative risk of ever use versus never use of indoor tanning. Dose-response effects and exposure to indoor tanning during early life were also examined. The population attributable risk fraction for the
calculated. United States
12 studies with 9328 cases of non-melanoma skin cancer were included. Among people who reported ever using indoor tanning compared with those who never used indoor tanning, the summary relative risk for squamous cell carcinoma was 1.67 (95% confidence interval 1.29 to 2.17) and that for basal cell carcinoma was 1.29 (1.08 to 1.53). No significant heterogeneity existed between studies. The population attributable risk fraction for the
was estimated to be
8.2% for squamous cell carcinoma and 3.7% for basal cell carcinoma. This
corresponds to more than 170 000 cases of non-melanoma skin cancer each year attributable to indoor
tanning. On the basis of data from three studies, use of indoor tanning before
age 25 was more strongly associated with both squamous cell carcinoma (relative
risk 2.02, 0.70 to 5.86) and basal cell carcinoma (1.40, 1.29 to 1.52). United States
Indoor tanning is associated with a significantly increased risk of both basal and squamous cell skin cancer. The risk is higher with use in early life (<25 years). This modifiable risk factor may account for hundreds of thousands of cases of non-melanoma skin cancer each year in the
alone and many more
worldwide. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence on the
harms of indoor tanning and support public health campaigns and regulation to
reduce exposure to this carcinogen. United States
Source: Indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Wehner MR, Shive ML, Chren MM, Han J, Qureshi AA, Linos E (email@example.com). BMJ. 2012 Oct 2;345:e5909.
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